The Scale of the Universe 2
Cell Size and Scale. Meter. m. 1 m. Centimeter. m. m. 1/ m. hundreth of a meter. Millimeter. m. m. 1/1, m. thousandth of a meter. These worksheets are designed to be read by students before viewing a CAASTRO in the Classroom video Interactive 1 - Sizing up the universe. Interactive 2 - The Scale of the universe . to set a specific date and time for the night sky. Universe Scale Worksheet. Name. Date ______. Object. Distance from the Sun. Scaled Distance. Earth. minutes m or mm. Mercury.
Fold the remaining paper in half between Mars and the sun and label this fold Earth. Fold the remaining paper in half between Earth and the sun and label this fold Venus. Fold the remaining paper in half between Venus and the sun and label this fold Mercury. Have the student picture in their minds what a scale model of the solar system would look like on the six pages.
Modeling the Expanding Universe - PDF
Do a quick sketch in your science journal. Discuss the scale model of the Solar System that they are going to do. Show how big a worksheet it will take for them to do it. Have students hold up left had. Start with only one sheet on the left side. Put up transparency showing first page of solar system chart.
Show how to mark top and bottom of page, and then draw a straight line. Also, after drawing line, put a dot at This will mark where the middle of the planets goes.
Show how to use a compass, and how to draw circles. Use the center dot to mark the middle of each planet. These are the measurements of the planets using the Safe-T compasses: Describe what your model looks like.
Is this different from what you sketched in your science journal? Discuss it with your group. Discuss what are some advantages and disadvantages that you seen using a scale model?
Be specific and use examples from this activity alignment of the planets and size of the planets.
Cell Size and Scale
On this scale, the Sun itself will be about 0. This is about the size on a pin. Place a mark on the meter stick at the distance of each planet. In this model, one light-year is a mile.
Alpha Centuri is the closest star to the sun. It is about 26,, miles away. It would have to be placed 4. Each group is to double check their measurements and display a sign at the correct location for the planet. This leads to greats discussions. There are three different methods. Choose your favorite or use all three and discuss the differences. In this model, each square of toilet paper represents 1 million 1, miles.
The distances are from the sun NOT from each planet the next. There are many misconceptions about the size of objects in Outer Space. This lesson focuses on why different objects may appear to the same size. The main idea is that the further something is from the viewer, the smaller it will appear.
The moon is km in diameter, while the sun is approximately times that diameter- 1, km. In addition, the sun is times as far away as the moon. The distance of the sun from the Earth is approximately , km and the distance of the moon from the Earth iskm.
Introduce the topic by talking about a full moon at night. How does the size of the full moon compare to the size of the sun.
Discuss in small groups. Have the student construct the viewing eyepieces. Cut a piece of black construction paper large enough to cover one end of the tube. Using a paper punch put a hole in the middle of the paper. Secure the paper to the tube using tape or a rubber band. Make certain the hole is centered on the end of the table. Place the four ball objects on a table.
Demonstrate the proper way to use a tube. Tell the students to put the open end to their eye, resting it on their cheekbone. Ask the students to predict whether they think they will be able to see all the objects even the small and the large objects through the hole.
After some exploration time, ask the students where they think they would have to stand to make one of the objects appear to be the same size as the hole. Ask if you would be able to see all four objects by standing in the one position. Let the students walk back and forth until the objects just fill the small hole in the paper. Encourage students to use the words appears.
From this position, the volleyball appears the same size as the marble appears from this other position. Record in their journal: Have the students record their findings in their science journal.
Answer the following questions: Is apparent size the same as actual size? How does distance affect apparent size? How does this activity explain the fact that the sun and the moon appear to be the same size? The universe can expanded infinitely in all directions and can still be expanding. It is important to stress that space itself is expanding, not galaxies, nor the matter they contain.
The Milky Way does not seem to be getting bigger each year, nor is our solar system growing because the universe is expanding. Video projector Computer 12 inch Balloon 1. Discuss with the students that the universe has a center.
The amount of the observed redshift is proportional to the speed of the source for speeds that are not close to the speed of light. The hydrogen line that was at nanometers will be redshifted by about 65 nanometers to nanometers. As speeds approach the speed of light, the principles of relativity must be used to explain the relationship between an object s redshift and its speed.
However, the speeds of the galaxies in this activity are much less than the speed of light, so the simple proportion described above can be used. Using the galactic spectra, students will calculate how fast Galaxies A, B, C, and D are receding from us, and graph that in relation to the galaxy s estimated distance from us.
Tell students to assume that these four galaxies are all approximately the same actual size. Ask students to arrange the four galaxies in order of distance from the earth. Discuss what evidence they used for their choices. Label the graph on the student worksheet by writing the letters of the galaxies in order of their estimated distance along the x- axis.
Give each student or small group of students the spectra of the four galaxies, A, B, C, and D. Determine the wavelength of the red hydrogen line in the spectra from galaxies, A, B, C and D. Record these on the worksheet. Compare the wavelength of the red hydrogen line in each galactic spectrum to the laboratory sample of hydrogen gas. By how much has the line been shifted? What fraction of the original wavelength is it?
At what fraction of the speed of light is the galaxy moving? Calculate the recession velocity of the four galaxies using the Student Worksheet. Plot the velocity data on the y-axis of the graph on the Student Worksheet. Discussion Notes In the s, Edwin Hubble measured redshifts to determine the velocities of galaxies.
He found that there was a linear relationship between a galaxy s distance from us and how fast that galaxy is receding its recession velocity. This simple relationship can be described in equation form, where the slope of the graph of distance vs. Hubble s Law is important in understanding the age and size of the universe, and is described further in the background information for the previous activity, Modeling the Expanding Universe.
Suggested Answers These notes provide answers to some of the questions on the Student Worksheets and can be used to help guide a class discussion. In Part 1, when looking at the pure hydrogen spectrum, students should measure peaks at nanometers, nanometers, and nanometers. Although this third line is not visible in the color image, it can be measured on the graph. All three of these lines appear in the spectrum of the Sun and may be easier to find in the graph than in the color image.The Known Universe by AMNH
In Part 2, we have assumed all the galaxies are all the same actual size. Therefore, Galaxy B, which appears largest in the optical image, is presumed to be closest to us. Accordingly, the smallest image C is farthest away. In order from closest to farthest, the galaxies are B, D, A, and then C. Spectrum B shows the hydrogen line at nanometers. This is redshifted 10 nanometers, or 1. Galaxy D is about Mly from the Milky Way. Spectrum D shows the hydrogen line at nanometers. Therefore, the velocity of Galaxy D is 0.
Galaxy A is about 1, Mly from the Milky Way. Spectrum A shows the hydrogen line at nanometers. Therefore, the velocity of Galaxy A is 0. Galaxy C is about 2, Mly from the Milky Way. Spectrum C shows the hydrogen line at nanometers. Therefore, the velocity of Galaxy C is 0. Sample Graph Galaxy Distance vs. The pattern is created by passing light from the Sun through a glass prism, which separates the light into its component colors. In addition to the familiar rainbow of colors, notice the dark lines.
These lines are produced by atoms in the Sun s atmosphere that absorb certain wavelengths of light. This dark-line pattern is called an absorption spectrum. Note that the pattern extends past the red, into the infrared region. Infrared light is not visible to our eyes.
It is colored grey in this image. The grey area to the left of the blue is part of the ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Fluorescent Lamp This is the spectrum of a Fluorescent Lamp. Instead of a complete rainbow, we see only certain colors of light. This bright-line pattern is called an emission spectrum. We don t see a full rainbow because rainbows are produced only by light sources that are very hot.
What colors do you see in the Fluorescent Lamp spectrum, and what are their wavelengths? Hydrogen is the simplest chemical element. The pattern was produced by taking the light from a glowing tube of hydrogen gas, and passing the light through a prism.
What colors do you see in the hydrogen spectrum, and what are their wavelengths? Look for lines at these same wavelengths in the spectrum of the Sun. Which lines can you see? Sample Galaxy This is the spectrum of a galaxy. The pattern was produced when the light from this distant galaxy was passed through a device similar to a prism. In addition to the rainbow, there is a bright red line. This line comes from the element hydrogen.
Determine the wavelength of the red hydrogen line in the spectrum of the sample galaxy. The peak has been shifted from its characteristic wavelength as measured above in the hydrogen spectrum toward the longer wavelength part of the spectrum, which is the redder end of the spectrum.
This phenomenon is called a redshift. In the sample galaxy, the red hydrogen peak is at nanometers. These galaxies, are all approximately the same actual size.
Which galaxy do you think is closest to us? Closest farthest What evidence did you use in these choices? Label the x-axis of the graph on page 2 with the letter of the galaxies, in order from closest to farthest. Look at the spectra of the four galaxies A, B, C, and D. Determine the wavelength of the red hydrogen line in each spectra. The hydrogen line that was at nanometers in the laboratory sample of hydrogen gas will be redshifted by about 65 nanometers, and will be observed at nanometers.
By how much has the red hydrogen line been shifted in the spectra of galaxies A, B, C, and D? What fraction of the original wavelength is this? The speed of light is approximatelykilometers per secondmiles per second.
Galaxy Distance Galaxy Distance vs. How does How this does evidence this evidence support the support theory the of theory an expanding of expanding universe? Adenine The label on the nucleotide is not quite accurate. Adenine refers to a portion of the molecule, the nitrogenous base. It would be more accurate to label the nucleotide deoxyadenosine monophosphate, as it includes the sugar deoxyribose and a phosphate group in addition to the nitrogenous base. However, the more familiar "adenine" label makes it easier for people to recognize it as one of the building blocks of DNA.
How can an X chromosome be nearly as big as the head of the sperm cell?
No, this isn't a mistake. First, there's less DNA in a sperm cell than there is in a non-reproductive cell such as a skin cell. Second, the DNA in a sperm cell is super-condensed and compacted into a highly dense form. Third, the head of a sperm cell is almost all nucleus.