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Brunetto Latino, Maestro di Dante Alighieri, Bibliography

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The Divine Comedy is an Italian long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. and .. Date, Title, Place, Publisher, Notes . In , Miguel Asín Palacios , a Spanish scholar and a Catholic priest, published La Escatología musulmana. Brunetto Latino was to be one such Prior and Dante Alighieri, another. From this date until his death Brunetto was to be mentioned again and again, forty-two. Based on EA's must-have game, the animated feature Dante's Inferno follows Dante on a stunning journey Spanish - Spain, ✓ Release Date: Feb 9,

A sixth traces his presence in the works of subsequent writers. Most of these categories overlap untidily, but are cross-referenced in this analytic bibliography. Alphabetization is by surnames afterbut is usually by first names before that date: Zingarelli, Nicola, but Dante Alighieri. Bibliography items are renumbered from the edition.

This work is in preparation for an International Edition of Brunetto Latino's Works, including the volumes with his Italian writings. As part of this project it is to be hoped that M. Moleiro will look favourably on a project publishing in facsimile the following manuscripts: Firenze, Biblioteca Nazionale, II. I propose to publish on the web a digital version of the first edition in print of Il tesoro, likewise the entire Tesoro manuscript, Firenze, Biblioteca Nazionale, II.

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There should likewise be an accompanying volume published by the Archivio di Stato di Firenze of the documents written by and naming Brunetto Latino. This multi-volume set would be of great use in research libraries for providing the context of Dante's education. Over a quarter a century ago Alan Deyermond wrote the contract for this book and I signed it on a lunch ticket at the Prospect Club, Princeton University, suggesting it also be updated with supplements, and I am everlastingly grateful to his memory.

I should like to mention here what I call 'Red Herrings', assertions made by scholars upon false premises which then get parrotted through time by further generations of scholars, leading everyone astray.

The Divine Comedy, Vol. 1 (Inferno) (English trans.) - Online Library of Liberty

Imbriani M inproclaimed, despite all the previous evidence in primary materials, that Brunetto Latino was never Dante Alighieri's teacher, and nearly everyone followed suit. Carrer, in his edition C. A further serious problem occurred where Concetto Marchesi Jb, Ke believed that a particular manuscript containing Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, because it bore the date '', was written then and not at the date of its colophon '', given by the same scribe.

Ulysses and Guido together form a kind of diptych, and the subtlety and power of Dante' portrait of Guido are intensified by their close proximity to the very different picture of Ulysses. It hardly needs repeating that the figure of Ulysses is majestic, imposing, like Farinata before him.

The voice of Ulysses is hurled, thrown, flung out from the flame. This kind of energy and directness characterizes both Ulysses and his utterance. Ulysses, in a way, leaves nothing to the imagination; and, mysteriously, this same quality makes him all the more powerful to the imagination.

For he holds nothing back; he tells the truth, as he understands it, about himself and his motives: Not fondness for a son, nor duty to an aged father, nor the love I owed Penelope which should have gladdened her, could conquer within me the passion I had to gain experience of the world and of the vices and worth of men Ulysses disarms his critics: Ulysses admits the truth, vigorously, with a full knowledge of what he is doing, and why, and the alternatives he has rejected in the name of a higher, more intense, calling.

Ulysses' forthrightness, then, captivates the reader, even as it captivates his fellow sailors, who, after his famous speech, are inflamed by Ulysses' own passion: Li miei compagni fec' io si aguti, con questa orazion picciola, al cammino, che a pena poscia li avrei ritenuti My companions I made so eager for the road with these brief words that then I could hardly have held them back And here we see a second major element in Ulysses' character or, more correctly, in Dante's presentation of Ulysses' character: Put another way, Ulysses' great adventure is a shared experience.

This union of the two souls within one flame is poetically appropriate, since, in life, Ulysses had a shared, fraternal relation with his men: This is one of the most powerful, and moving, elements in Dante's portrait.

Sailor that he is, Ulysses fills his narrative with careful observations of natural fact: After he and his companions set out, he tells us with characteristic accuracy: Night then saw all the stars of the other pole and ours so low that it did not rise from the ocean floor XXVI, I could list other examples, but these should suffice to provide some sense of what I mean about Ulysses' characterization.

He is, as I have said, unapologetic, forthright, and factual in his account; fiercely unsentimental as in his description of his fatal shipwreck. He is unblinking in his analysis of himself and his motives and the consequences of his actions, all of which involve him in the public world, or in a world of shared experiences with his fellow-men.

These are some of the traits that make him the imposing figure that he is. They also make him the perfect foil for the figure of Guido da Montefeltro. We can perceive much of the difference between Ulysses and Guido by comparing the ways in which the two characters are first presented. Ulysses, as we saw, begins speaking almost immediately: Then follows the famous description of the Sicilian bull of Phalaris, which became the instrument of death for its overly ingenious inventor.

This image provides our first, and essential, key to the canto and its characterization.

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Like Perillus, who invented the Sicilian bull, Guido, too, will prove to be his own victim. This self-negating, self-destructive quality of which Guido is unaware makes for much of the grimly satirical tone of Dante's verbal portrait. It is very difficult for Guido's words to find their way out of the flame in which he is imprisoned: After such tremendous difficulty, Guido at last manages to make himself heard, and immediately begins to reveal more of himself than he realizes: You gave yourself away!

Then, again like the overly-polite and fussy creature of a court, he says: Wishing to tidy up any loose ends of etiquette, Guido apologizes, or almost apologizes: The subjunctive is Guido's characteristic verbal mood: The indefinite maybe is Guido's tool for outmaneuvering others in conversational gambits; yet even so, Guido loses, definitively.

Guido, of course, does not mean to be funny; but the unintentional humor is nonetheless there: Guido then goes on: Se tu pur mo in questo mondo cieco caduto se' di quella dolce terra latina ond' io mia colpa tutta reco, dimmi se Romagnuoli han pace o guerra If thou hast fallen but now into this blind world from that sweet land of Italy whence I bring all my guilt, tell me if the Romagnoles have peace or war These are characteristic locutions for Guido.

Through such verbal tics, Dante quickly sketches a portrait of a very careful man, a man who is very afraid of saying too much about anything, yet who is constantly, unwittingly, giving himself away.

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These two tercets contain an entire portrait in miniature: Guido is so sure of himself that he feels safe in being subtly rude: But Guido blithely rules out that possibility: After a lifetime at court, Guido, even in his misplaced self-confidence, is unable to open his mouth without carefully qualifying the statement: The corollary to which is of course: And naturally, he ruins himself in the process, simply by failing to ask the obvious, point-blank question: The account that Guido gives of himself is, naturally, self-serving and presents him as a victim, not as an agent, of his spiritual undoing: Guido believed he was doing the right thing; he thought he could make amends for his former life.

Guido doesn't believe anything; or rather, belief, for him, is a matter of dressing-up: Guido stresses his own good intentions: The nautical image that Guido employs is a startling reminder of the integrity even in Hell of the mariner Ulysses: If only it hadn't been for Boniface. Guido's presentation of Boniface is a triumph, in turn, of Dante's art: But what was Guido to do? Here again, the stiletto attack of the well-trained courtier: Was the Pope drunk?

Guido isn't saying; but the Pope's words appeared drunken: Even in Hell, the courtier continues to gossip, continues to spread rumors. Guido's verbal sparring with Boniface proves that the Fox has met his match in the wiley pontiff.

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In two brilliantly witty lines, the Pope calms the worried advisor: The Pope knows his man. Guido is now at his crossroads. What will he do? How will he respond to the Pope's request? The answer is foregone: He analyzes his dilemma strictly in terms of strategy and worldly prudence: He only worries about offending the Pope: One can almost see the smile of self-satisfaction as Guido pronounces these carefully chosen words.

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Guido's self-awareness is pathetically limited, as is his understanding of sin and redemption. The consequences of Guido's decision follow immediately, with the comical account of Saint Francis' confrontation with the logician-devil for the soul of the self-pitying counsellor. The black cherub captures, in three lines, the spiritual tragedy of Guido da Montefeltro: For he cannot be absolved who repents not, nor can there be repenting and willing at once, for the contradistion does not permit it vv.

One thinks of Oscar Wilde's famous line about Max Beerbohm: The black cherub pays Guido back in his own verbal coin: And so Guido is condemned by Minos to the Eighth Bolgia, which he shares with the great figure of Ulysses: Now, at the end of his story, Guido remains perfectly in character, talking about his infernal punishment in terms of dress: These are perhaps the truest words he speaks: Dante's Olympian detachment is very evident in this portrait: Guido can condemn himself to Hell with his own too-revealing volubility.

And this unwitting self-revelation is intensified by its juxtaposition with the deeply moving narrative that precedes it. Ulysses, as I said, is forthright, vigorous, aboveboard; passionately committed to his great and foolhardy undertaking.

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Guido is isolated, alone in his self-pity. For Ulysses, life itself is a voyage carried out in the company of others; for Guido, life is a sparring match, a battle of wits in which he, Guido, ultimately loses. The words of Ulysses move with a somber, majestic cadence: Ulysses, as we have seen, is scrupulous in regard to outer, physical, demonstrable truth; to accuracy.