Mental disorder - Wikipedia
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Social factors impact upon the experience lived by each woman, both rationally and psychologically, all of which is condensed in a profound experience that can affect women in their social, labor and relational life. From the socio-cultural point of view, we may state that each social group maintains a vision and an interpretation of what menstruation means.
Although, the West legates said mentioned process to the personal environment, it sets the start of the woman's mature life, which is why it is constituted into a transition period in two well-differentiated stages of her life. Other cultures, on the contrary, give the menstrual cycle a high social and community content, arriving at the establishment of rites, festivities, and even sanctions for women upon the appearance of the menarche.
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When adding all this to the individual experience, it yields as a result an extensive variation in the meaning, management, and treatment, when such is required. Thus, it is expected for the menstrual experience to vary according to the context, the popular and cultural beliefs, and the information received.Conoce los síntomas del síndrome premenstrual
Popular beliefs are based on precepts that have been historically transmitted generation after generation. It is, therefore, notoriously important to highlight that menstruation as experience goes beyond the women's sole environment.
On the contrary, it should be understood that this is an issue that exceeds the private field, inasmuch as it directly involves the social group in which women develop and affect their own lives personally and socially. Thus, the relevance of revising the historical constructs on menstruation can allow better understanding the complexity of women's experiences, to more effectively focus their approach from healthcare services.
Additionally, a search was made in Google scholar and some monographs. Said searches permitted access to international and historical material. The search was complemented by consulting with national academic authorities. RESULTS Etymologically, the term comes from the Latin menstruus, whose origin is in mensis, which means month; this is also one of the reasons why it is called period.
Many cultures along history have given menstruation a mystical meaning. For example, because of its monthly character and its day cadence, the menstrual cycle has been related to the lunar cycle, and on occasion women have been bestowed with responsibility over agriculture, giving the menstrual cycle mystical qualities that impact upon the planting and harvesting process.
For other cultures, menstrual blood had evil and harmful qualities for men. For example, according to the Talmud if a woman starting her cycle passed between two men, one of them was being condemned to die; if, on the contrary, the woman was ending the menstrual cycle both men would end up quarreling.
On the one hand, Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia listed the 'dangers' of menstruating women: Also, the proximity of menstruating women could make foods under preparation to spoil, kitchenware would deteriorate, plants would wither, and it was believed that a sick person would worsen if a woman who was menstruating was near. Some cultures considered menstruation as a symbol of 'impurity', which appears proscribed in several sacred texts.
X, refers to the impurity of women and of the elements and individuals with which they relate during the menstruation. In some tribes it is believed that because of it menstruating women can diminish the tribe's collective strength, which is why they are judged as temporary enemies of the clan and, fearing their presence, are subjected to different types of isolation and confinement, reaching quite varied reclusion mechanisms and periods.
In some cases, as with the Falashas of Ethiopia, special places are available for women to be isolated during the days the menstruation lasts.
Menstruation in history
For example, during the 17th century in France, it was thought that the menstrual blood from a woman who had not given birth could put out fires, no matter how hot these fires were.
Thus, from these imaginaries a knowledge set is constituted involved with the personal experience, giving it meaning and determining an action model that must be followed by the menstruating woman, while forming a particular way of confronting menstruation. It is through the formulation of rational knowledge, removed from all these types of mysticisms, that it would be possible to arrive at a more favorable understanding of menstruation per se.
Not for nothing, rationalized formulations were sought of the phenomenon of the menstrual cycle, giving it a more biological role than religious or spiritual roles. Aristotle, for example, considered that it was during menstruation when the semen acted to bring on fertilization as a result. However, indisposition persists when dealing with the theme in a direct and more rational and objective manner.
On the contrary, given that this theme is kept under a veil of the purely personal experience, it is difficult to accept specific and completely rationalized knowledge. For example, in places with extreme morality and religious conscience, these topics are related to negative attitudes toward menstruation, which are combined with poorly qualified information, superstitions, and inadequate practices.
Also, menstruation is no stranger to collective processes, through which concepts and knowledge are constituted, which are shared socially and traditionally bequeathed from one generation to another. Modern scientific literature states that the hormonal changes of the menstrual cycle may result in changes in the habitual mood of each woman, inasmuch as it influences their mood; which makes it viable to state that the appearance of the menstrual cycle can, in some women, affect their behavior.
Additionally, during the fertile period of said cycle certain changes may also be produced, like improved mood, better self-evaluation, and more sense of security in themselves. In any case, rarely do women readily recognize that levels of depression and stress are related to menstruation, unconcerned for the psychological problems and assuming that they are symptoms that will surely disappear in a few days.
In these cases, what is most usual is for women to design mechanisms to face the mood changes, above all if these turn out to be regular and predictable. Nevertheless, it seems that one of the most often used mechanisms is that of increasing activity in the family and work environments for the purpose of 'keeping busy'. This mechanism is often accompanied by increased time to perform certain activities, which seems to be a practical means to contain the sense of fatigue.
Because of the lack of information and the growing misinformation regarding this theme, they find it impossible to arrive at a treatment that allows them to solve the pain and other complications that may emerge, besides the social problems that this may bring on. Some treatments used by symptomatic women are phyto-therapeutic, which are based on using plant properties to treat the symptomatology of pre-menstrual syndrome PMS. Thus, certain products are used like, for example, Chasteberry Vitex agnus-castus L.
To conclude, persistent misinformation turns out to be one of the biggest problems for women. Although, currently, there is a tendency to demystify sexuality, by addressing such in a much more frank and rational manner, that related to menstruation is still relegated to the purely personal setting and submerged in the nebulosity of taboo.
Everything related to the gender-specific discomfort is maintained in the most profound secret, which is added to poorly qualified information, culturally and socially transmitted. It is an illness not just of mind or brain, but a disorder of the entire body. We have a package here of five symptoms—mild depression, some anxiety, fatigue, somatic pains, and obsessive thinking. We have had nervous illness for centuries. When you are too nervous to function But that term has vanished from medicine, although not from the way we speak.
The nervous patients of yesteryear are the depressives of today. That is the bad news.
There is a deeper illness that drives depression and the symptoms of mood. We can call this deeper illness something else, or invent a neologism, but we need to get the discussion off depression and onto this deeper disorder in the brain and body. That is the point. Tyrer, FMedSci, Professor of Community Psychiatry, Imperial College, London  "Nervous breakdown" is a pseudo-medical term to describe a wealth of stress-related feelings and they are often made worse by the belief that there is a real phenomenon called "nervous breakdown".
Classification of mental disorders There are currently two widely established systems that classify mental disorders: Both of these list categories of disorder and provide standardized criteria for diagnosis.
They have deliberately converged their codes in recent revisions so that the manuals are often broadly comparable, although significant differences remain. Other classification schemes may be used in non-western cultures, for example the Chinese Classification of Mental Disordersand other manuals may be used by those of alternative theoretical persuasions, for example the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual. In general, mental disorders are classified separately from neurological disorderslearning disabilities or intellectual disability.
Unlike the DSM and ICD, some approaches are not based on identifying distinct categories of disorder using dichotomous symptom profiles intended to separate the abnormal from the normal.
There is significant scientific debate about the relative merits of categorical versus such non-categorical or hybrid schemes, also known as continuum or dimensional models. A spectrum approach may incorporate elements of both. In the scientific and academic literature on the definition or classification of mental disorder, one extreme argues that it is entirely a matter of value judgements including of what is normal while another proposes that it is or could be entirely objective and scientific including by reference to statistical norms.
Some neurologists argue that classification will only be reliable and valid when based on neurobiological features rather than clinical interview, while others suggest that the differing ideological and practical perspectives need to be better integrated.
Studying comorbidity between disorders have demonstrated two latent unobserved factors or dimensions in the structure of mental disorders that are thought to possibly reflect etiological processes. These two dimensions reflect a distinction between internalizing disorders, such as mood or anxiety symptoms, and externalizing disorders such as behavioral or substance abuse symptoms.
The p factor model supports the internalizing-externalizing distinction, but also supports the formation of a third dimension of thought disorders such as schizophrenia. List of mental disorders as defined by the DSM and ICD There are many different categories of mental disorder, and many different facets of human behavior and personality that can become disordered.
Mood disorder involving unusually intense and sustained sadness, melancholia, or despair is known as major depression also known as unipolar or clinical depression. Milder but still prolonged depression can be diagnosed as dysthymia. Bipolar disorder also known as manic depression involves abnormally "high" or pressured mood states, known as mania or hypomaniaalternating with normal or depressed moods.
The extent to which unipolar and bipolar mood phenomena represent distinct categories of disorder, or mix and merge along a dimension or spectrum of mood, is subject to some scientific debate. Psychotic disorders in this domain include schizophreniaand delusional disorder.
Schizoaffective disorder is a category used for individuals showing aspects of both schizophrenia and affective disorders. Schizotypy is a category used for individuals showing some of the characteristics associated with schizophrenia but without meeting cutoff criteria. Personality —the fundamental characteristics of a person that influence thoughts and behaviors across situations and time—may be considered disordered if judged to be abnormally rigid and maladaptive.
A number of different personality disorders are listed, including those sometimes classed as "eccentric", such as paranoidschizoid and schizotypal personality disorders; types that have described as "dramatic" or "emotional", such as antisocialborderlinehistrionic or narcissistic personality disorders; and those sometimes classed as fear-related, such as anxious-avoidantdependentor obsessive-compulsive personality disorders.
The personality disorders, in general, are defined as emerging in childhood, or at least by adolescence or early adulthood. The ICD also has a category for enduring personality change after a catastrophic experience or psychiatric illness. If an inability to sufficiently adjust to life circumstances begins within three months of a particular event or situation, and ends within six months after the stressor stops or is eliminated, it may instead be classed as an adjustment disorder.
There is an emerging consensus that so-called "personality disorders", like personality traits in general, actually incorporate a mixture of acute dysfunctional behaviors that may resolve in short periods, and maladaptive temperamental traits that are more enduring.
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Sleep disorders such as insomnia involve disruption to normal sleep patterns, or a feeling of tiredness despite sleep appearing normal. Sexual disorders and gender dysphoria may be diagnosed, including dyspareunia and ego-dystonic homosexuality. Various kinds of paraphilia are considered mental disorders sexual arousal to objects, situations, or individuals that are considered abnormal or harmful to the person or others. People who are abnormally unable to resist certain urges or impulses that could be harmful to themselves or others, may be classed as having an impulse control disorder, and disorders such as kleptomania stealing or pyromania fire-setting.
Various behavioral addictions, such as gambling addiction, may be classed as a disorder. Obsessive-compulsive disorder can sometimes involve an inability to resist certain acts but is classed separately as being primarily an anxiety disorder.
The use of drugs legal or illegal, including alcoholwhen it persists despite significant problems related to its use, may be defined as a mental disorder.
- Comida para aliviar el SPM
- Mental disorder
The DSM incorporates such conditions under the umbrella category of substance use disorderswhich includes substance dependence and substance abuse.